Wastewater treatment facility at Kanapaha

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istockphoto 172898918 170667a
istockphoto 172898918 170667a

The Kanapaha wastewater treatment facility uses activated sludge technology to treat 2,300 gallons of wastewater per second, or 7.8 million gallons per day. 

The treatment process is completed by mixing the water with air bubbles to create a thick laminar flow called “activated sludge” which is then pumped into an aeration basin.

 This technique allows the nutrients present in the water column to remain in solution and be consumed by microorganisms.

Biological systems like nitrification and denitrification help to reduce the amount of nitrogen in the water.

 Nitrification is a process that occurs when ammonia is converted into nitrate, and denitrification occurs when anaerobic bacteria convert nitrate into nitrogen and water.

 Denitrification can occur in aerobic areas of a plant, where there is oxygen present, or in anaerobic areas of a plant, where there is no oxygen. 

Aerobic systems are typically used for waste waters with low levels of ammonia and high levels of organic wastes so that denitrification can occur.

A unique feature of this facility are its four active settling basins that allow for natural organic sediment breakdown within the reactor chamber, without depending on chemical oxidants like chlorine or ozone gas.

 Each basin has a composition of a sandy substrate, a degree of water depth, and a pump that circulates the water through the system to help maintain load on the microorganisms that consume organic material in the wastewater. 

The basins are then designed with an open channel flow to eliminate dead ends and to promote mixing of the activated sludge.

After treatment has been completed, flow is moved into post-treatment basins where disinfection steps take place to ensure no pathogens or microorganisms exist in the treated water before it moves into Lake Kanapaha and eventually flows out to Orange Lake and ultimately Orange Creek which provides fresh water for North Central Florida residents.

what does the kanapaha wastewater treatment facility use to disinfect the treated water?

Sodium hypochlorite is the disinfectant used at the Kanapaha facility.

Ways how wastewater is treated at water plants :

1. Primary Treatment : 

Filters are supposed to remove the large visible solids floating in the water. Sometimes, Sludge is removed here.

2. Secondary Treatment : 

Additional filters are added to Primary filters to remove smaller, finer solids and floating material. There also could be an aerator attached to these tanks for air mixing which helps the microorganisms grow better. 

To increase biological efficiency, coagulants like ferric chloride or aluminum sulfate are added that activates floc formation at low dosages where flocs remain suspended in the water for easier removal. This is called Flocculation .

3.Tertiary Treatment :

Water is treated again with additional tests to remove even smaller particles. 

These tests could be chemicals, sedimentation or clarifying. 

Clarifying treatment turns solid particles into a slurry which settles to the bottom of the tank. 

This slurry acts as a coagulant when added to water that has already been treated through sedimentation or chemical filtration.

4.Absorption Treatment : 

This is the final stage where all pollutants are removed through activated carbon adsorption. The carbon dissolves the chemical contaminants then removes them from the water.

 When activated carbon goes into contact with polluted water, it forms a porous layer of molecules that acts like a filter; it absorbs pollutants and impurities.

 It can’t absorb everything, though; chemicals like chlorine need to be added to make sure they are removed completely.

5. Chemical treatment : 

Alkalinity can be controlled by adding either soda ash or caustic soda. Chlorine is added for disinfection.

6. Non chemical treatment : 

Sedimentation removes suspended solids by letting them settle to the bottom of the tank. 

Clarification removes suspended and dissolved solids by letting them settle and then removing them with a filter or by centrifuging. 

Chemical coagulation is the mixing of chemicals with water to create flocs (clumps) that can then be removed with a filter or centrifuge; usually ferric chloride is used as the coagulant.

This is the final stage. 

The activated sludge from Tertiary treatment is mixed with chemicals to make it stronger and then pumped into activated sludge basins. In the active basins, the sludge stays in contact with air bubbles and microorganisms to continue degrading organic material.

The primary function of a wastewater treatment plant is to remove large solids from wastewater, while at the same time maintaining a stable pH level. 

These solids are removed through settling or by using a clarifier, which can contain biological processes to decompose suspended wastes. 

Strongly corrosive chemicals that might damage other facilities are used in conjunction with biological systems to help prevent this from occurring.

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